November 21, Accepted: November 22, Ref: Ethical and Legal aspects of Artificial Reproductive Techniques including surrogacy. January 1,Accessed:
Introduction Many conservationists and aviculturists have joined in an effort to propagate non-domestic birds in captivity Martin Intensive propagation techniques, some common to the domestic poultry industry and others peculiar to aviculture are used. Artificial insemination Al is one of these techniques Gee and Temple that has been used extensively with domestic and nondomestic species.
Al has been used successfully with cassowaries C. The cryopreservation of avian semen is another new propagation Artificial insemination research paper that has been successful in chickens Sexton and recently on a limited basis in propagating cranes Gee and Secton and ducks Watanabe et al.
Fish and Wildlife Service, the U. The most obvious need was to reduce or eliminate infertility Szumowski et al. In some mated pairs natural copulation can be difficult because of differences in body size, injury, or deformity, and in some, natural copulation maybe inhibited by behavioral difficulties.
In other situations some females may be kept in separate pens because of incompatibility or the lack of a mate. Occasionally a productive female may be in a distant location separate from the male, where transfer of semen is the only alternative to infertility.
Also, poor fertility in a mated pair can be improved through insemination with semen from another male. AI is useful in carrying out the goals of special breeding programs for captive propagation. The genetic influence of one male in a population can be increased by using his semen to sire young from several females each season.
Semen from several males can be used at one time to increase fertility or semen donors can be interchanged during a season so that chicks from the same female could have different sires.
Hybridization between incompatible species is possible with Al and has been used extensively in poultry and waterfowl. Certain information can be gathered more quickly using insemination.
Semen collected has other uses. Laboratory studies of semen can be used to evaluate its reproductive potential Sharlin et al. Semen can be used to evaluate sperm preservation techniques and kept in the frozen state indefinitely Sexton and GeeWatanabe and Terada andWatanabe et al.
Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology To use Al, it is helpful to understand avian reproduction and to avoid confusion between bird and mammal reproductive systems.
Male birds lack the accessory reproductive organs typical in mammals Marshall The paired testes are located deep in the body cavity, above the abdominal air sacs and ventral to the cephalic end of the kidneys Sturkie The testes consist of seminiferous tubules, rete tubules, and vas defferentia, but no septa or lobules.
The sperm are taken from the simple epididymis on the caudal wall of the testis to the cloaca by the vas deferens Sturkie The vasa deferens terminate as erectile teats in the urodeum Sturkie and in some small birds, form a coiled structure above the dorsal lip of the cloaca, the cloaca protuberance Howell and BartholomewSaltWolfson andMiddleton Semen contains fluids secreted from the seminiferous tubules, epithelial cells of the reproductive tract, lymph from the lymph folds and erectile tissues in the cloaca, and sperm MannLakeBuxton and OrcuttNishiyama et al.
Birds, the only class of vertebrates that consists exclusively of oviparous forms Marshalllay eggs, generally within a day or two of ovulation. Although a few species have ovaries and oviducts on both sides, generally only the left side is functional Sturkie The oviduct consists of an infundibular region, magnum, isthmus, uterus shell glandand vagina.The results of the research note that the factors that become the main cause of the success of artificial insemination include: breeder condition (age of education level, breeding experience) and support of .
Artificial Insemination Term paper help: Artificial insemination is considered to be one of the most controversial issues in many societies because while on the one hand it provides childless couples with a hope to have their own children, it also raises a number of .
§ Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources, Adopted (a) The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the school year.
Use the following resources as a guide to breeding by downloading the Full Guide or by following each step for more information below.
You may also want to view the AKC webinar on Planning. The timing of sexual intercourse in relation to ovulation strongly influences the chance of conception, although the actual number of fertile days . George F.
Gee. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center Laurel, Maryland U.S.A. Introduction Many conservationists and aviculturists have joined in an effort to propagate non-domestic birds in captivity (Martin ).