I just love these films. Costars Joan Allen and Albert Finney do reprise their roles, though, and Treadstone still darkens the plot. Thus, to fill the void, I have recruited my own assets, a bunch of books on the CIA itself. Is that what Bourne was?
Roosevelt had been having doubts about the effectiveness of the nation's intelligence-gathering efforts because they were scattered among the various branches of the military. To correct this deficiency, he appointed William J.
The OSS, under Donovan's leadership, was given the task of collecting and analyzing information needed by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the heads of all the branches of the nation's military, and to conduct special or clandestine operations that were not carried out by other federal agencies or branches of the military.
Throughout the war, the OSS provided policy makers and the military with essential intelligence, including enemy troop strength estimates, that was crucial to planning military campaigns. In the months and years following World War II, policy makers struggled with two questions: Who should conduct the nation's intelligence-gathering activities?
And who should supervise their efforts? These were important questions, for the Cold War rivalry between the United States and its chief adversary, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or Soviet Union, made accurate and timely intelligence about Soviet intentions imperative.
Initially, President Harry S.
Truman favored dividing responsibilities between military and civilian agencies. At about the same time, Donovan proposed the formation of a strictly civilian organization that would coordinate intelligence gathering.
Such an organization would be authorized to conduct subversive operations History of formation of the cia, but it would have no police or law-enforcement authority at home. Donovan's plan met with resistance from both the military and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, which feared that the plan would lessen their influence.
In January,Truman struck a middle course. He established the Central Intelligence Group CIGgiving it the authority to coordinate intelligence gathered by existing departments and agencies. The CIG was placed under the supervision of a National Intelligence Authority, which in turn was made up of the president and the secretaries of the State, War, and Navy departments.
For the first time in its history, the United States had a peacetime intelligence organization. InCongress entered the picture by passing the National Security Act. Intelligence gathering was now firmly under the control of civilian authorities, principally the president and his NSC staff.
The growth of the CIA.
Throughout the early years, the structure of the CIA changed and its functions were assigned and reassigned to various departments.
By the early s, its broad structure had become largely what it is in Under the supervision of the Director of Central Intelligence DCIone of any president's chief political appointees, are four major departments, or directorates.
The Directorate of Administration supervises the business aspects of the agency, including personnel, logistics, training, and the like. The Directorate of Intelligence is the CIA's analysis arm; it interprets raw information and turns it into useful intelligence for the president and the NSC.
The Directorate of Science and Technology employs top scientists to develop ever more sophisticated scientific tools to aid in the intelligence-gathering process. Finally, the Directorate of Operations is the traditionally glamorized component of the CIA, for its agents conduct actual intelligence operations in the field.
Until recent years, the CIA was overwhelmingly a male domain, including mostly academics, lawyers, and journalists. At the time, the CIA had a distinctly academic tone, for the agency recruited top students from the nation's most prestigious universities and placed considerable emphasis on the sober analysis of information.
Inthe CIA employed about 5, people who were housed in various locations in and around Washington, D. In the s and early s, the CIA enjoyed considerable prestige, for it was primarily through intelligence that the United States resisted the expansion of the Soviet Union and the spread of Communism.
In the s, however, the CIA began to endure some public opinion scrutiny.
Init backed the disastrous Bay of Pigs operation intended to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro. Later in the decade, as opposition to the war in Vietnam grew, the CIA was seen in many quarters as emblematic of a misguided foreign policy.
Further damaging the agency's reputation were revelations that it took part in unsavory operations in Central and South America, often undermining unfriendly regimes and propping up brutal dictators who were friendly to American interests.
InSenator Frank Church led congressional hearings that resulted in restrictions to the entire intelligence community concerning domestic spying and the implementation of stricter oversight of covert operations abroad.The True -- and Shocking -- History of the CIA.
The Central Intelligence Agency itself was created during the Truman administration in order to prevent future surprise attacks like Pearl. So here’s another legacy: “Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA” (Doubleday, ) is a barn-burner by New York Times reporter Tim Weiner.
(Note: The CIA website actually runs book. History of the CIA: Central Intelligence Agency. The Office of Strategic Services (OSS): The Office of Strategic Services Society. Inside the fight to reveal the CIA’s torture secrets: The Guardian. The CIA's history of covert activity has done more damage to the United States than the combined efforts of its enemies since the end of World War II.
More pathetically, the CIA has very seldom been able to provide the kind of analysis and assessments to inform and rationalize foreign policy that it was created in large part to provide/5().
Sep 26, · history of Latin America: The United States and Latin America in the Cold War era tactics featured use of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) rather than landing of military forces.
In , the Central Intelligence Agency Act was passed supplementing the Act by permitting the Agency to use confidential fiscal and administrative procedures and exempting CIA from many of the usual limitations on the expenditure of federal funds.