Russia From the U.
Anti-pornography movement MacKinnon, along with late feminist activist Andrea Dworkintried to change legal approaches to pornography by framing it as a civil rights violation in the form of sex discrimination, and as human trafficking. They defined pornography as: Antipornography Civil Rights Ordinance InLinda Boreman who had appeared, under the name Linda Lovelace in the pornographic film Deep Throat claimed her ex-husband Chuck Traynor had violently coerced her into making Deep Throat and other pornographic films.
Boreman made her charges public for Nyu selected essays on labor and employment law press corps at a press conference, together with MacKinnon, members of Women Against Pornographyand feminist writer Andrea Dworkin offering statements in support.
After the press conference, Dworkin, MacKinnon, Boreman, and Gloria Steinem began discussing the possibility of using federal civil rights law to seek damages from Traynor and the makers of Deep Throat.
This was not possible for Boreman because the statute of limitations for a possible suit had passed. MacKinnon opposed traditional arguments and laws against pornography based on the idea of morality or filth or sexual innocence, including the use of traditional criminal obscenity law to suppress pornography.
Instead of condemning pornography for violating "community standards" of sexual decency or modesty, they characterized pornography as a form of sex discrimination and sought to give women the right to seek damages under civil rights law when they could prove they had been harmed.
Their anti-pornography ordinances make actionable only sexually explicit material that can be proven to subordinate on the basis of sex. Inthe Minneapolis city government hired MacKinnon and Dworkin to draft an anti-pornography civil rights ordinance as an amendment to the Minneapolis city human rights ordinance.
The amendment defined pornography as a civil rights violation against women and allowed women who claimed harm from trafficking in pornography to sue the producers and distributors for damages in civil court. It also allowed those who had been coerced into pornography, had had pornography forced upon them, or were assaulted in a way caused by specific pornography to sue for harm they could prove.
The law was passed twice by the Minneapolis city council but was vetoed by the mayor. Another version of the ordinance passed in Indianapolis, Indiana inbut was ruled unconstitutional by the Seventh Circuit Court of Appealsa decision summarily affirmed without opinion by the U.
MacKinnon wrote in the Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review in And as you think about the assumption of consent that follows women into pornography, look closely some time for the skinned knees, the bruises, the welts from the whippings, the scratches, the gashes. Many of them are not simulated.
One relatively soft core pornography model said, "I knew the pose was right when it hurt.
For this reason, pornography becomes a motive for murder, as in " snuff " films in which someone is tortured to death to make a sex film.
Civil libertarians frequently find MacKinnon's theories objectionable see " Criticisms " sectionarguing there is no evidence that sexually explicit media encourages or promotes violence against, or other measurable harm of women. The Butler decision was controversial to some; it is sometimes implied that shipments of Dworkin's book Pornography: Successful Butler prosecutions have been undertaken against the lesbian sadomasochistic magazine Bad Attitude, as well as the owners of a gay and lesbian bookstore for selling it.
Canadian authorities raided an art gallery and confiscated controversial paintings depicting child abuse. Many free speech and gay rights activists have alleged that the law is selectively enforced, targeting the LGBT community.
MacKinnon represented Bosnian and Croatian women against Serbs accused of genocide sincecreating the legal claim for rape as an act of genocide in that conflict. She was co-counsel, representing named plaintiff S. Kadic, in Kadic v. The lawsuit under the United States' Alien Tort Statute established forced prostitution and forced impregnation when based on ethnicity or religion in a genocidal context as legally actionable acts of genocide.
What became termed the Swedish Model, also known as the Nordic Model or the Equality Model, penalizes buyers of persons for sexual use as well as sellers, namely pimps or sex traffickers, while decriminalizing all those who are bought and sold in prostitution.UPDATE: Guide to Russian Federation Law in English: Selection of Sources By Lucy Cox Lucy Cox is Librarian Emerita of the Rutgers University Law School Library at Camden, where she was Reference and Foreign/International Law Librarian.
Her responsibilities included maintaining the Ginsburgs Collection of Soviet and Post-Soviet Law. I am sharing my experience and OPINION. I WAS a first year law student that started April 1st, Oh the irony of that date. I am posting this to inform others of my disappointment with Concord as I learn about more and more of my fellow classmates being dismissed due to a C- grade, it seems this is the majority of my class (so far maybe that actually moved on to take the FYLSE).
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