Stephanie Feldstein Human Population Growth and Climate Change The largest single threat to the ecology and biodiversity of the planet in the decades to come will be global climate disruption due to the buildup of human-generated greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. People around the world are beginning to address the problem by reducing their carbon footprint through less consumption and better technology. But unsustainable human population growth can overwhelm those efforts, leading us to conclude that we not only need smaller footprints, but fewer feet. Portland, Oregon, for example, decreased its combined per-capita residential energy and car driving carbon footprint by 5 percent between and
Effects on Climate Processes Land-use and land-cover changes affect local, regional, and global climate processes. The author team benefited from a number of relevant technical input reports.
· In Asia, food production has managed to keep slightly ahead of population growth largely because of new breeds of Asian rice and the use of tremendous amounts of agricultural chemicals. However, in some areas losses from poor land management have erased the benefits which had been gained (Repetto et al., )heartoftexashop.com Find an answer to your question How does land use change as the human population increases?1/5(2). The use of fertilizer N has increased markedly in the past three decades; between and fertilizer application rates for wheat production increased from 80 to kg N haheartoftexashop.com
One report described the findings of a three-day workshop held from November 29 to December 1,in Salt Lake City, in which a number of the chapter authors participated. In addition, from December through June the author team held biweekly teleconferences.
Key messages were identified during this period and discussed in two phases, associated with major chapter drafts. An early draft identified a number of issues and key messages.
Based on discussions with National Climate Assessment NCA leadership and other chapter authors, the Land Use and Land Cover Change authors identified and reached consensus on a final set of four key messages and organized most of the chapter to directly address these messages. The authors selected key messages based on the consequences and likelihood of impacts, the implied vulnerability, and available evidence.
Relevance to decision support, mitigation, and adaptation was also an important criterion for the selection of key messages for the cross-cutting and foundational topic of this chapter.
Satellite observations, with near complete coverage over the landscape and consistency for estimating change and trends, are particularly valuable. Field inventories, especially of agriculture and forestry, provide very reliable data products that describe land cover as well as land-use change.
Together, remote sensing and field inventory data, as well as related ecological and socioeconomic data, allow many conclusions about land-use and land-cover change with very high confidence.
Description of evidence base The dependence of weather and climate processes on land surface properties is reasonably well understood in terms of the biophysical processes involved. Most climate models represent land-surface conditions and processes, though only recently have they begun to incorporate these conditions dynamically to represent changes in the land surface within a model run.
Regional weather models are increasingly incorporating land surface characteristics. Extensive literature — as well as textbooks — documents this understanding, as do models of land surface processes and properties.
A Technical Input report to the National Climate Assessment 10 summarizes the literature and basic understanding of interactions between the atmosphere and land surface that influence climate.
Examples are provided within the chapter to demonstrate that land-use and land-cover change are affecting U. Assessment of confidence based on evidence Very High. The basic processes underlying the biophysics of interactions between the land surface and atmosphere are well understood.
A number of examples and field studies are consistent in demonstrating effects of land use and land-cover change on the climate of the United States. Confidence Level Very High Strong evidence established theory, multiple sources, consistent results, well documented and accepted methods, etc.
Air temperature and near-surface moisture are changed in areas where natural vegetation is converted to agriculture. Regional daily maximum temperatures were lowered due to forest clearing for agriculture in the Northeast and Midwest, and then increased in the Northeast following regrowth of forests due to abandonment of agriculture.
Land-cover changes associated with urbanization are creating higher air temperatures compared to the surrounding rural area.
Urban landscapes are also affecting formation of convective storms and changing the location and amounts of precipitation compared to pre-urbanization.
The impact is expected to be most significant in areas with forest loss or gain, where the amount of carbon that can be transferred from the atmosphere to the land or from the land to the atmosphere is modified.
Even in relatively un-forested areas, this effect can be significant. A recent USGS report suggests that from to in the Great Plains between 22 to million metric tons of carbon were stored in the biosphere due to changes in land use and climate.
Copy link to clipboard Key Message 3: Adapting to Climate Change Individuals, businesses, non-profits, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. Description of evidence base The key message is supported by well-understood aspects of land-use planning and management, including the legal roles of government and citizens and management practices such as zoning and taxation.
Participants in the NCA workshop Nov Dec 1,in Salt Lake City on land use and land cover presented and discussed a number of examples showing the influences of land-use decisions on climate change adaptation options.
The aspects of land-use planning that can enable climate change adaptation are well understood and examples demonstrate where actions are being taken.
These changes may be either encouraged or mandated by government whether at federal or other levelsor undertaken by private initiative. Land-use and land-cover changes are thus rarely the product of a single factor. Land-use decision processes are influenced not only by the biophysical environment, but also by markets, laws, technology, politics, perceptions, and culture.
Yet there is evidence that climate adaptation considerations are playing an increasingly large role in land decisions, even in the absence of a formal federal climate policy. Motivations typically include avoiding or reducing negative impacts from extreme weather events such as storms or heat waves or from slow-onset hazards such as sea level rise see Ch.
For example, New Orleans has, through a collection of private and public initiatives, rebuilt some of the neighborhoods damaged by Hurricane Katrina with housing elevated six feet or even higher above the ground and with roofs specially designed to facilitate evacuation.
Adaptation of this report; Chapters 26 Ch. Decision Support and 27 Ch. Mitigation treat the related topics of Decision Support and Mitigation, respectively.
· Land use has a significant influence on land values. For example, land with greater access to water resources (either higher rainfall or access to ground or surface water) will normally attract a higher price than land with fewer water resources or land with salinity or other environmental [email protected]/Latestproducts/Main.
· Synthesis: Condition and Trends in Systems and Services, Trade-offs for Human Well-being, and The use of ecosystem services has also changed in its nature, in large part due to research and technology development, allow- driven by the way people use land, heartoftexashop.com · The image of Hamas in the West has long been linked to its suicide attacks against Israeli civilians.
The front-page pictures after its victory in the elections of hooded gunmen marching in the streets of Gaza and Ramallah, brandishing green flags with heartoftexashop.com The land or land uses takes quite a bit of abuse as the human population increases.
The land takes in chemicals, and if over-cropped it can be drained of its nutrients (which is what lead to the Dust Bowl).5/5(2). Find an answer to your question How does land use change as the human population increases?1/5(2).
· Advantages and disadvantages of land use changes for the preservation of During the and the focus on increasing soil productivity has led to intensification of due to the increasing use of food-concentrates by livestock breeders, heartoftexashop.com